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Author Topic: Rocky Jupiters  (Read 7673 times)

Gregory

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Rocky Jupiters
« on: March 27, 2016, 08:18:55 PM »
I opened the new button to create a new simulation, and I selected a random exoplanet, the planet's name is HD 74156 c, it is 8 x the mass of Jupiter and has a radius of 1.64 x that of Jupiter, it is one of the largest planets known, but, somehow, it has a rocky texture, I'm starting to believe that rocky Jupiters exist, though they must be very rare, if it's a bug, then it must be a cool one, if rocky Jupiters exist, then Jupiters with extreme densities must be terrestrials, making them extreme Mega Earths, and after all, Kepler-10 c was once believed to be the first Mega Earth discovered, and it's only 2.35 x Earth's radius, but thought to have an astounding 17.2 Earth masses, more than Neptune.
Kepler-22b's is large too, but we're not sure whether it's terrestrial or neptunian, it could be both.

Here's a screenshot of HD 74156 c, it's radius is 113645 km, while Earth's mean radius is 6371 km, so HD 74156 c is much bigger than Jupiter, and yet it's rocky, pretty weird.
« Last Edit: February 13, 2020, 07:21:15 PM by Gregory »

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #1 on: March 27, 2016, 08:19:19 PM »
Also, an unusual planet, Kepler-432b, was discovered orbiting a red subgiant, the planet is 45% bigger than jupiter in radius and 6 times more massive, so it's the densest planet ever discovered.

Here's a simulation of Kepler-432b, a blue ocean terrestrial Earth like look of the planet was chosen due to the extreme density and consistency of the planet, yet its rotation period is 30 minutes long because of its extreme density.
« Last Edit: May 14, 2016, 10:12:18 AM by Gregory »

Darvince

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #2 on: March 28, 2016, 10:12:29 PM »
Once a gas giant reaches a certain point, between the mass of Jupiter and Saturn, they start becoming more and more dense until fusion begins in the star. So what you are seeing with the density of these objects is simply gravitational compression from the weight of all the gas, and since gas is incredibly compressible, it has formed a dense object. This can also be seen with red dwarf stars, which have very high densities, in fact if you choose Wolf 359 and place it in the sim, you will note that its density is near 30g/cm3. Much higher than any rocky planet. Kepler-432b is simply a super Jupiter and could likely have a large rocky core compared to other super Jupiters, giving it its higher density.

If a rocky Jupiter were to exist, its density would most likely be several hundred grams per cm3, far surpassing the density of even the two objects you posted in this thread. It would also be much smaller than Jupiter despite having similar pass and its surface gravity would be horrifically high.

Plasmic Physics

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #3 on: March 29, 2016, 03:09:59 AM »
There are at least two things that bugs me about this part of the physics simulator:
1. Astronomical bodies convert to gas giants above a mass of 13.00 Jupiters, despite having a iron/silicate composition containing no hydrogen whatsoever, and having no atmosphere.
2. Such a giant planet manages to generate it's own heat through nuclear fusion, even though silicon requires significantly higher pressure to achieve nuclear fusion than hydrogen; furthermore silicate planets don't normally contract nearly fast enough to produce sufficient heat to induce fusion. Depending on how fast a giant silicate planet grows, it should either glow for a while as it converts directly into a black dwarf, or it should glow brightly before exploding in a nova, leaving behind a white dwarf.
3.The appearance of a black dwarf as in the US2, is not simply a black star. That is a cheap shortcut.
« Last Edit: March 29, 2016, 03:15:15 AM by Plasmic Physics »

Gordon Freeman

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #4 on: March 29, 2016, 10:18:23 PM »
There... aren't any black dwarves in US2. That's a bug.

Plasmic Physics

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #5 on: April 01, 2016, 07:20:46 PM »
Fair enough. Is anyone interested in some more hypothetical astrophysics of super-terrestrial planets? I've more to share, if you are.

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #6 on: April 10, 2016, 03:07:03 PM »
So there might be a possibility of Rocky Jupiters, but they would be very hard to find, as there would be so few compared to the huge amount of small terrestrials and Gas Giants, and that bigger planets have more mass than smaller planets, and therefore their gravity is stronger than that of the smaller planets, yet Jupiter's gravity is 2.56 x that of Earth's on its surface, and a Rocky Jupiter would have much more than that and would be more than enough to crush you, and yet if one were ever discovered, it would be reported all over the media and talked about by the whole world because they would be extremely unusual and exotic.

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #7 on: May 02, 2019, 09:23:06 PM »
Here's HD 74156 c, shown here. Earth and Jupiter are placed side by side for reference.
Gives such a sense of scale.

Like I said, the chances of detecting a rocky jupiter are 10E-9 or 0.0000000001%, yet the chances of finding terrestrial planets with masses greater than 10 Earths were 6E-3 or 0.0006%.

Kepler-10c was believed to be a rocky planet and was nicknamed the Godzilla of Earths, but in 2017, new analysis from the HIRES data showed that Kepler-10c isn't nearly as massive or dense as expected, showing the mass is 7.37 Earths and the density is 3.14 gm/cm3, and based on composition, it's considered a volatile-rich hot mini neptune made mainly of water.

That would've ruled out the existence of mega earths, but it turns out there are still said to be planets that are mega earths, with BD+20594b, which is analyzed to be 16.3x as massive as Earth and 2.23x that of Earth in radius.
K2-66b is 21.3x as massive as Earth and its radius is 2.49x Earth's, and K2-38b's is 12x Earth's mass and 1.527x Earth's radius, and is perhaps the densest known exoplanet ever discovered, at a whopping 17.5 gm/cm3, far surpassing Kepler-432b.
Furthermore, Kepler-145b is currently analysed to have a mass of 37.1 earths and a radius of 2.65X that of Earth's, making it crowned the new king of terrestrials and godzilla of earths as far as we've searched an analyzed.
« Last Edit: May 03, 2019, 06:49:55 AM by Gregory »

kkst

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #8 on: September 23, 2019, 07:46:58 PM »
would you be kind enough to send a ubox file of the planet, it would be great for my solar system as the outer system is kinda empty

Cesare

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #9 on: September 26, 2019, 08:59:08 PM »
Yes, it is true that rocky Jupiters do exist. There is no doubt about that. Jupiter itself does have a solid surface but it is extremely deep within its atmosphere.

Gann123

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #10 on: November 30, 2019, 12:41:01 PM »
Imagine the gravity on that thing! :)

Cesare

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #11 on: November 30, 2019, 01:31:37 PM »
Yeah, I know. Massive gravity.

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #12 on: January 26, 2020, 08:34:16 PM »
Yup. We'd all be crushed.

Cesare

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #13 on: January 27, 2020, 09:08:50 AM »
Too much gravity is unsuitable for Earth's life.

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #14 on: January 27, 2020, 04:50:25 PM »
For sure & everything we built would be destroyed by the extreme gravitational pull.

Cesare

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #15 on: January 27, 2020, 06:30:54 PM »
Human life on Earth would be impossible with so much gravity.

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #16 on: February 13, 2020, 07:16:40 PM »
For sure, as we aren't strong enough to withstand it, yet neither are other large species though micro organisms could handle it.

Cesare

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #17 on: February 13, 2020, 08:38:24 PM »
It would be good if we discovered a rocky Jupiter-like planet somewhere.

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #18 on: February 13, 2020, 10:47:18 PM »
Yup though the chances are 10E-9 / 0.0000000001%.

Cesare

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #19 on: February 14, 2020, 12:58:10 PM »
I know that.

Gregory

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #20 on: March 16, 2020, 06:06:40 AM »
Yup, yet one thing we're wondering is what would they look like if they were seen in reality up close sometime after discovery, given proper technology.

Cesare

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Re: Rocky Jupiters
« Reply #21 on: March 16, 2020, 07:24:09 AM »
Update 25 is out. The performance of Universe Sandbox is so much better.